An electric motor, also known as a motor, also referred to as a motor or transliteration electric motor, is an engine that uses electricity, and generally refers to any electrical equipment that can convert electrical energy into mechanical energy and perform work to generate kinetic energy to drive other devices. Most electric motors generate rotational torque through the interaction between magnetic fields and winding currents; new linear motors are being developed for modern military equipment such as electromagnetic catapults and railguns. The principle difference between electric motors and other engines (such as heat engines, hydraulic engines, pneumatic engines, jet engines, etc.) lies in the way energy is converted.
The rotation principle of the motor is based on Fleming's left-hand rule or the right-hand open palm rule. When a wire is placed in a magnetic field, if a current is applied to the wire, the wire will cut the magnetic field lines and cause the wire to move. The current enters the coil to generate a magnetic field, and a device that uses the magnetic effect of the current to continuously rotate the electromagnet in a fixed magnet can convert electrical energy into kinetic energy. Interaction with a permanent magnet or a magnetic field produced by another set of coils generates power.
There are many types of motors. In terms of basic structure, their composition is mainly composed of stators and rotors. The stator is stationary in space, while the rotor can rotate around the shaft and is supported by bearings. There will be a certain air gap (air gap) between the stator and the rotor to ensure that the rotor can rotate freely. The casing (field yoke) needs to be made of high permeability material and used as a magnetic circuit.
The principle of the DC motor is that the stator does not move, and the rotor moves in the direction of the force generated by the interaction. In the AC motor, the stator winding coil is connected to the alternating current to generate a rotating magnetic field, and the rotating magnetic field attracts the rotor to rotate together.