What are the advantages of Alloy Wheel Hub Motor?
It depends on whether you are talking about e-bikes or electric cars. Having a hub motor and battery on your bike is a combination of pros and cons: you add a lot of weight to the bike, but in return, you get a nice and easy ride when you don't feel like pedaling. In the case of electric vehicles, the benefits are even more pronounced. The metal weight of a typical car (including engine, transmission, and chassis) can be 10 times the weight of its occupants, which is one reason why cars are so inefficient. Replace the heavy engine and transmission with hub motors and batteries, and you'll have a lighter, more energy-efficient car. Removing the engine compartment also frees up a lot of space for passengers and their luggage - you can put the battery behind the back seat!
Vehicles powered by hub motors are much simpler (less mechanically complicated) than normal vehicles. Suppose you want to invert. Instead of using elaborate gears, all you have to do is reverse the current. The motor spins back, and spins back! What about the four-wheel drive? This is a rather expensive option for many vehicles - you need more gears and complex drive shafts - but it's easily solved with hub motors. If your car has a hub motor for each of the four wheels, you automatically get four-wheel drive. In theory, it's easy to have the four motors spin at slightly different speeds (to aid cornering and steering) or torque (to get you moving in mud or uneven terrain).
The basic idea is the same. In a normal electric motor, you have a hollow outer ring-shaped permanent magnet (sometimes called a stator) that stays stationary, and an inner metal core (called a rotor) that rotates inside it. The rotating rotor has a shaft passing through the middle of the drive machine. But what if you grip the shaft so tightly that it won't spin and start the motor? The rotor and stator have no choice but to reverse roles: the normally stationary rotor remains stationary while the stator rotates around it. Try it with an electric toothbrush. If you have a toothbrush (broadly speaking, it's the static part that's attached to the motor), instead of holding the plastic, try holding only the bristles, and turn it on. It's tricky to do because the brush moves very quickly, but if done correctly, you'll find the handle wiggling slowly back and forth. This is basically what happens in hub motors. You attach the usually rotating bottom bracket to the static frame of a bike or the chassis of a car. When you turn on the power, the outer part of the motor spins and becomes the wheel (or wheels) that propels the vehicle forward.